Comenius:2009.12: El agua como el mayor conflicto geopolítico del siglo XXI
Preguntas iniciales, tareas, algunas referencias
El recalentamiento de la Tierra, jaquea tradicionales coaliciones intergubernamentales y conceptos geopolíticos. En los momentos actuales la forma de organizar la gestión del agua ha cobrado una importancia fundamental. La articulación de la gestión del agua en torno a las cuencas hidrográficas es una directriz avalada por los teóricos y reconocida en múltiples declaraciones internacionales y también en la legislación de bastantes Estados. Es necesario saber cómo tiene lugar la gestión del agua en distintos países descentralizados políticamente, así como saber la situación en Canadá, E.E.U.U., Méjico, Brasil, Argentina, España, Alemania, Italia, India, Etiopía, Nigeria etc., prestando una atención especial al juego de la cuenca hidrográfica en estos y en otros lugares y el derecho comunitario de aguas como ejemplo de planteamientos sobre la gestión del agua de una validez casi universal innegable. La disputa geopolítica por controlar los sectores hidrológicos que el mercado mundial ofrece va más allá de la que se desencadena desde cualquiera de sus usos particulares. Se observa además durante el control territorial de las fuentes hídricas que articulan muchos de los actuales procesos productivos y reproductivos y, sobre todo, en la estratégica tarea que el mercado emprende para hacer de la crisis de agotamiento y escasez de agua potable una nueva fuente de negocios que pasa por encima de los intereses de miles de millones de personas en el planeta.
Hacer un pequeño estudio de las discusiones que están produciéndose en los foros internacionales, y de cómo las ONG´s y Gobiernos están demostrando interés por el tema. Qué conflictos hídricos hay entre algunos países, causados por el cambio climático, y qué probabilidades existen de que estallarán guerras entre los países a causa del agua.
- La próxima guerra... la guerra del agua
- Las Guerras del Agua - 2da edición
- Geopolítica hídrica planetaria
- Agua: Conflicto Geopolítico
- 3er diálogo internacional sobre la crisis mundial del agua (Sevilla, 15 y 16 Nov 2007): Cambio climático y conflictos hídricos
- Notas sobre geopolítica hídrica. La guerra del agua.
Estudiantes Lope de Vega
1st Newsletter Oct 2009 LdV
At present water management has become a key concern. Water management in water catchment areas is a must supported by the academics and recognized in multiple international statements in the legislations of many states. It is necessary to know how the management of water takes place in different countries which are decentralized politically, as is to know what the situation is like in Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Spain, Germany, Italy, India and others. Paying special attention to the role of hydrographic basins in these and many other places and the water community law as an example of approach to global water management which has an almost undeniable universal validity. The geopolitical dispute to control the hydrological sectors offered by the world market goes far beyond which is triggered from any of its particular uses. It is also noted for the territorial control of the hydrological sources that articulate many of the existing productive and reproductive processes, especially in the strategic task that the market holds to make out of the crisis of exhaustion and lack of drinking water a new source of business that goes above the interests of thousands of millions of people on the planet.
Our theme is very interesting, because first we had problems to find some conflicts but then we found more and more information about existing and possible conflicts. We think that an important conflict was the Cochabamba conflict in Bolivia and it is also important to learn about future possible conflicts.
The water as the greatest Geopolitical conflict of the XXI century
|06 Nov 2009: Presentación del grupo 12 - Conflicts for water|
¿ What are the causes?
Consumption of the Water
The agriculture consumes 67 %, the industry uses 20 % (the equivalent to the whole hydroelectric world production), and the domestic uses 10 %.
Many cities or companies as the Coca-Cola exhaust the aquifers that I take centuries in filling. Also many companies of the called development dry rivers with his constructions, end with marshes, or use a lot of water to produce his products as the automotive industry, the mining industry or of textiles, between others.
In Africa, Asia and Latin America, the agriculture is the predominant water user with a percentage of 85 %. In all the regions of the world except in Oceania, the domestic water consumption comes at least from 20 % of the used water. In Latin America and the Caribbean Sea we live through 510 millions of which 76 million inhabitants do not have access to a source of sure water. He skimps in villages and cities. In 1995, 46 % of the world population was living in urban areas and it will be able to come up to 60 % in 30 years, principally of the poor countries or about to development, where of 25 50 % of the urban inhabitants is lived by them in slums and precarious establishments. For the year 2025 70 % of the world population will not have access to sufficient water, this will be equivalent to 3 thousand 500 million persons who will live in countries with water stress.
Distribution of the Water
71 % of the surface of the ground is covered by water, in addition to the million tons of water vapor that floats in the ambience. Of all the water that exists in the planet, 97 % is salted and he is in the seas and oceans. 0.5 % is like superficial moisture and vapor of atmospheric water. The rest, only 2.5 % is a fresh water, of which we can use to drink. And of this fresh water, a third part (33 %) flows and only her teeny-weeny part does it for some river in the world (1.7 %). What is worse is that of these rivers 60 % has restrained what has provoked a blockade of the hydrologic system. Another part of this fresh water flows below the ground or it is there stagnant or in the surface in the shape of lakes or lagoons. Or, of every 100 water drops, 97 drops are a salt and alone water 3 drops are a fresh water. According to some sources 13 % of the fresh water has his Brazil; Russia has 11 %; Canada 7 %; China 7 %; Indonesia, the United States and Bangladesh have each one 6 %; India 5 % and 35 % this one in the rest of the countries of the world.
Make business with the Water
The hidromafia has set in sale to the Water. The World Organization of the Commerce and the banking multilateral or called International Financial institutions (IFI's) like the World Bank (BM), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Inter-American Bank of Development (BID), are the fundamental axes that they are putting to the vital liquid in the hands of the companies. Two of them, Bechtel and Monsanto, the two of the United States, think about how to privatize and control the water in several countries, such as India, Bolivia and Mexico. The companies Vivendi and Suez are taking possession of the water in the world and control the access to the drinking water of more than 100 million persons in the planet. The advance in his wild privatization tries to put in few hands the life of thousands of million persons. In Argentina, Colombia and Chile many rivers have already been privatized for exclusive use of the big transnational corporations. The World Bank forced to Bolivia to privatize his water system that was bought with corruptions by the company of the United States, Bechtel, who took charge of the water system of the city of Cochabamba. Immediately later that the Bechtel took control of the system, the access to the water diminished and price they raised 40 %. But then, the people by means of his resistance and organization recovered the drinking water system In the last decade the governments have been privatizing the access to the water service, sewerage, cleanliness, exportation and technology related to the water. In the year 2000, the IMF forced the water privatization of 16 underdeveloped countries. Between these countries there were Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama, Rwanda, Santo Tomas and Prince, Senegal, Tanzania and Yemen. Since we can observe, at least three of them were countries brothers Centroamericanos and eight of the Sub-Saharan Africa. They all have the same common factor: highly impoverished and terribly indebted to the multilateral banks. This situation they allows both to the BM and to the IMF to impose his politics of a more rapid way.
The Cochabamba (Bolivia) Conflict
|The commercialization of the water has a date of commencement-2001, when the OMC happened to consider the natural resources to be a negotiation object - and final date, since it is foreseen that in this 2005 what till now the states were regulating I went on to the free trade market. Governments de facto of the whole world are giving the market of the water to the big corporations like Vivendi, Suez or RWE. Due to this privatization, in 2000 there was a real "war of the water" in Cochabamba (Bolivia). The State had given him the authorization to handle the water system to transnational Bechtel Corporation. After a few weeks of coming, the acquaintance "super rate" imposed the North American company. Families with wretched salaries met water invoices that 20 % of his income was taking. The war exploded in the streets and did not stop until the company left Bolivia.|
Possible Conflicts between Jordan and Israel
|Other discord sources are the river Jordan and the Litani, in Middle East. Between all the countries implied here, it is necessary to point out that Israel, Jordan and the occupied territories have exhausted almost all his water resources; in fact any peace agreement between Israel and Palestine has to take a paragraph on waters to be minimally considered on both parts.|
Possible Conflicts between Turkey, Syria and Iraq
|Some critics do not discard that perhaps with the war of Iraq there have wanted to be controlled the water resources of the rivers Euphrat and Tigris, deep rivers in one of the most arid areas of the planet. Really, these two rivers are a constant conflicts source between Turkey - that possesses the sources of both and who in fact controls the wealth - Syria and Iraq.|
Possible Conflicts between Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt
The Nile, which waters dispute Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt. Here the birth and 85 % of the waters are in Ethiopia, but he does not exercise his domineering position and also there is a bilateral agreement between Sudan and Egypt for the share-out of the wealth.
The water, a resource more ancient that the life humanizes and completely necessary for the subsistence and the economic development, appears in the XXIst century like another motive of possible wars if the necessary measures are not taken on the part of the international organisms and the governments. According to realized studies, in the year 2025 the water demand in the world will be 56 % superior to the supply, and in some areas of the planet it will be major, what it will stir up and it is already like that, battles and disagreements between different nations or inside the proper countries.
The problem is that some companies or cooperations are tying to privatize and to take control of the water systems in serveral countries. This problem is the principal cause of conflicts. At the moment there are few possible conflicts.